kernel-command-line — Kernel command line parameters




The kernel, the initial RAM disk (initrd) and basic userspace functionality may be configured at boot via kernel command line arguments. In addition, various systemd tools look at the EFI variable "SystemdOptions" (if available). Both sources are combined, but the kernel command line has higher priority. Please note that the EFI variable is only used by systemd tools, and is ignored by the kernel and other user space tools, so it is not a replacement for the kernel command line.

For command line parameters understood by the kernel, please see kernel-parameters.html[1] and bootparam(7).

For command line parameters understood by the initial RAM disk, please see dracut.cmdline(7), or the documentation of the specific initrd implementation of your installation.

Core OS Command Line Arguments

systemd.unit=, rd.systemd.unit=, systemd.dump_core, systemd.early_core_pattern=, systemd.crash_chvt, systemd.crash_shell, systemd.crash_reboot, systemd.confirm_spawn, systemd.service_watchdogs, systemd.show_status, systemd.status_unit_format=, systemd.log_target=, systemd.log_level=, systemd.log_location=, systemd.log_color, systemd.default_standard_output=, systemd.default_standard_error=, systemd.setenv=, systemd.machine_id=, systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy, systemd.legacy_systemd_cgroup_controller

Parameters understood by the system and service manager to control system behavior. For details, see systemd(1).

systemd.mask=, systemd.wants=, systemd.debug_shell

Additional parameters understood by systemd-debug-generator(8), to mask or start specific units at boot, or invoke a debug shell on tty9., systemd.run_success_action=, systemd.run_failure_action=

Additional parameters understood by systemd-run-generator(8), to run a command line specified on the kernel command line as system service after booting up.


During early boot, the generation of core dump files is disabled until a core dump handler (if any) takes over. This parameter allows to specifies an absolute path where core dump files should be stored until a handler is installed. The path should be absolute and may contain specifiers, see core(5) for details.


This parameter is understood by several system tools to control whether or not they should restore system state from the previous boot. For details, see systemd-backlight@.service(8) and systemd-rfkill.service(8).


This parameter controls whether the system shall boot up in volatile mode. Takes a boolean argument, or the special value "state". If false (the default), normal boot mode is selected, the root directory and /var are mounted as specified on the kernel command line or /etc/fstab, or otherwise configured. If true, full state-less boot mode is selected. In this case the root directory is mounted as volatile memory file system ("tmpfs"), and only /usr is mounted from the file system configured as root device, in read-only mode. This enables fully state-less boots were the vendor-supplied OS is used as shipped, with only default configuration and no stored state in effect, as /etc and /var (as well as all other resources shipped in the root file system) are reset at boot and lost on shutdown. If this setting is set to "state" the root file system is mounted read-only, however /var is mounted as a volatile memory file system ("tmpfs"), so that the system boots up with the normal configuration applied, but all state reset at boot and lost at shutdown. If this setting is set to "overlay" the root file system is set up as "overlayfs" mount combining the read-only root directory with a writable "tmpfs", so that no modifications are made to disk, but the file system may be modified nonetheless with all changes being lost at reboot. For details, see systemd-volatile-root.service(8) and systemd-fstab-generator(8).


Parameter understood by both the kernel and the system and service manager to control console log verbosity. For details, see systemd(1).


Parameter understood by both the kernel and the system and service manager to control console log verbosity. For details, see systemd(1).

-b, rd.emergency, emergency, rd.rescue, rescue, single, s, S, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Parameters understood by the system and service manager, as compatibility and convenience options. For details, see systemd(1).

locale.LANG=, locale.LANGUAGE=, locale.LC_CTYPE=, locale.LC_NUMERIC=, locale.LC_TIME=, locale.LC_COLLATE=, locale.LC_MONETARY=, locale.LC_MESSAGES=, locale.LC_PAPER=, locale.LC_NAME=, locale.LC_ADDRESS=, locale.LC_TELEPHONE=, locale.LC_MEASUREMENT=, locale.LC_IDENTIFICATION=

Parameters understood by the system and service manager to control locale and language settings. For details, see systemd(1).


Parameters understood by the file system checker services. For details, see systemd-fsck@.service(8).


Parameter understood by the file quota checker service. For details, see systemd-quotacheck.service(8).

systemd.journald.forward_to_syslog=, systemd.journald.forward_to_kmsg=, systemd.journald.forward_to_console=, systemd.journald.forward_to_wall=

Parameters understood by the journal service. For details, see systemd-journald.service(8).

vconsole.keymap=, vconsole.keymap_toggle=, vconsole.font=, vconsole.font_map=, vconsole.font_unimap=

Parameters understood by the virtual console setup logic. For details, see vconsole.conf(5).

udev.log_priority=, rd.udev.log_priority=, udev.children_max=, rd.udev.children_max=, udev.exec_delay=, rd.udev.exec_delay=, udev.event_timeout=, rd.udev.event_timeout=, net.ifnames=, net.naming-scheme=

Parameters understood by the device event managing daemon. For details, see systemd-udevd.service(8).


May be used to disable the Plymouth boot splash. For details, see plymouth(8).

luks=, rd.luks=, luks.crypttab=, rd.luks.crypttab=,,, luks.uuid=, rd.luks.uuid=, luks.options=, rd.luks.options=, luks.key=, rd.luks.key=

Configures the LUKS full-disk encryption logic at boot. For details, see systemd-cryptsetup-generator(8).

fstab=, rd.fstab=

Configures the /etc/fstab logic at boot. For details, see systemd-fstab-generator(8).

root=, rootfstype=, rootflags=, ro, rw

Configures the root file system and its file system type and mount options, as well as whether it shall be mounted read-only or read-write initially. For details, see systemd-fstab-generator(8).

mount.usr=, mount.usrfstype=, mount.usrflags=

Configures the /usr file system (if required) and its file system type and mount options. For details, see systemd-fstab-generator(8).

roothash=, systemd.verity=, rd.systemd.verity=, systemd.verity_root_data=, systemd.verity_root_hash=

Configures the integrity protection root hash for the root file system, and other related parameters. For details, see systemd-veritysetup-generator(8).

systemd.gpt_auto=, rd.systemd.gpt_auto=

Configures whether GPT based partition auto-discovery shall be attempted. For details, see systemd-gpt-auto-generator(8).


Overwrites the default start job timeout DefaultTimeoutStartSec= at boot. For details, see systemd-system.conf(5).


Overwrites the watchdog device path WatchdogDevice=. For details, see systemd-system.conf(5).

modules_load=, rd.modules_load=

Load a specific kernel module early at boot. For details, see systemd-modules-load.service(8).

resume=, resumeflags=

Enables resume from hibernation using the specified device and mount options. All fstab(5)-like paths are supported. For details, see systemd-hibernate-resume-generator(8).


Takes a boolean argument, defaults to on. If off, systemd-firstboot.service(8) will not query the user for basic system settings, even if the system boots up for the first time and the relevant settings are not initialized yet.

See Also

systemd(1), systemd-system.conf(5), bootparam(7), dracut.cmdline(7), systemd-debug-generator(8), systemd-fsck@.service(8), systemd-quotacheck.service(8), systemd-journald.service(8), systemd-vconsole-setup.service(8), systemd-udevd.service(8), plymouth(8), systemd-cryptsetup-generator(8), systemd-veritysetup-generator(8), systemd-fstab-generator(8), systemd-gpt-auto-generator(8), systemd-volatile-root.service(8), systemd-modules-load.service(8), systemd-backlight@.service(8), systemd-rfkill.service(8), systemd-hibernate-resume-generator(8), systemd-firstboot.service(8), bootctl(1)




Referenced By

systemd(1), systemd-debug-generator(8), systemd.directives(7), systemd.exec(5), systemd-fstab-generator(8), systemd-hibernate-resume-generator(8), systemd.index(7), systemd-nspawn(1), systemd-run-generator(8), systemd-volatile-root.service(8).

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