ss — another utility to investigate sockets

Examples (TL;DR)


ss [options] [ FILTER ]


ss is used to dump socket statistics. It allows showing information similar to netstat. It can display more TCP and state information than other tools.


When no option is used ss displays a list of open non-listening sockets (e.g. TCP/UNIX/UDP) that have established connection.

-h, --help

Show summary of options.

-V, --version

Output version information.

-H, --no-header

Suppress header line.

-O, --oneline

Print each socket's data on a single line.

-n, --numeric

Do not try to resolve service names. Show exact bandwidth values, instead of human-readable.

-r, --resolve

Try to resolve numeric address/ports.

-a, --all

Display both listening and non-listening (for TCP this means established connections) sockets.

-l, --listening

Display only listening sockets (these are omitted by default).

-o, --options

Show timer information. For TCP protocol, the output format is:



the name of the timer, there are five kind of timer names:

on : means one of these timers: TCP retrans timer, TCP early retrans timer and tail loss probe timer

keepalive: tcp keep alive timer

timewait: timewait stage timer

persist: zero window probe timer

unknown: none of the above timers


how long time the timer will expire


how many times the retransmission occured

-e, --extended

Show detailed socket information. The output format is:

uid:<uid_number> ino:<inode_number> sk:<cookie>


the user id the socket belongs to


the socket's inode number in VFS


an uuid of the socket

-m, --memory

Show socket memory usage. The output format is:





the memory allocated for receiving packet


the total memory can be allocated for receiving packet


the memory used for sending packet (which has been sent to layer 3)


the total memory can be allocated for sending packet


the memory allocated by the socket as cache, but not used for receiving/sending packet yet. If need memory to send/receive packet, the memory in this cache will be used before allocate additional memory.


The memory allocated for sending packet (which has not been sent to layer 3)


The memory used for storing socket option, e.g., the key for TCP MD5 signature


The memory used for the sk backlog queue. On a process context, if the process is receiving packet, and a new packet is received, it will be put into the sk backlog queue, so it can be received by the process immediately


the number of packets dropped before they are de-multiplexed into the socket

-p, --processes

Show process using socket.

-i, --info

Show internal TCP information. Below fields may appear:


show string "ts" if the timestamp option is set


show string "sack" if the sack option is set


show string "ecn" if the explicit congestion notification option is set


show string "ecnseen" if the saw ecn flag is found in received packets


show string "fastopen" if the fastopen option is set


the congestion algorithm name, the default congestion algorithm is "cubic"


if window scale option is used, this field shows the send scale factor and receive scale factor


tcp re-transmission timeout value, the unit is millisecond


used for exponential backoff re-transmission, the actual re-transmission timeout value is icsk_rto << icsk_backoff


rtt is the average round trip time, rttvar is the mean deviation of rtt, their units are millisecond


ack timeout, unit is millisecond, used for delay ack mode


max segment size


congestion window size


path MTU value


tcp congestion window slow start threshold


bytes acked


bytes received


segments sent out


segments received

send <send_bps>bps

egress bps


how long time since the last packet sent, the unit is millisecond


how long time since the last packet received, the unit is millisecond


how long time since the last ack received, the unit is millisecond

pacing_rate <pacing_rate>bps/<max_pacing_rate>bps

the pacing rate and max pacing rate


a helper variable for TCP internal auto tuning socket receive buffer


Show ToS and priority information. Below fields may appear:


IPv4 Type-of-Service byte


IPv6 Traffic Class byte


Class id set by net_cls cgroup. If class is zero this shows priority set by SO_PRIORITY.

-K, --kill

Attempts to forcibly close sockets. This option displays sockets that are successfully closed and silently skips sockets that the kernel does not support closing. It supports IPv4 and IPv6 sockets only.

-s, --summary

Print summary statistics. This option does not parse socket lists obtaining summary from various sources. It is useful when amount of sockets is so huge that parsing /proc/net/tcp is painful.

-E, --events

Continually display sockets as they are destroyed

-Z, --context

As the -p option but also shows process security context.

For netlink(7) sockets the initiating process context is displayed as follows:

  1. If valid pid show the process context.
  2. If destination is kernel (pid = 0) show kernel initial context.
  3. If a unique identifier has been allocated by the kernel or netlink user, show context as "unavailable". This will generally indicate that a process has more than one netlink socket active.
-z, --contexts

As the -Z option but also shows the socket context. The socket context is taken from the associated inode and is not the actual socket context held by the kernel. Sockets are typically labeled with the context of the creating process, however the context shown will reflect any policy role, type and/or range transition rules applied, and is therefore a useful reference.


Switch to the specified network namespace name.

-b, --bpf

Show socket BPF filters (only administrators are allowed to get these information).

-4, --ipv4

Display only IP version 4 sockets (alias for -f inet).

-6, --ipv6

Display only IP version 6 sockets (alias for -f inet6).

-0, --packet

Display PACKET sockets (alias for -f link).

-t, --tcp

Display TCP sockets.

-u, --udp

Display UDP sockets.

-d, --dccp

Display DCCP sockets.

-w, --raw

Display RAW sockets.

-x, --unix

Display Unix domain sockets (alias for -f unix).

-S, --sctp

Display SCTP sockets.


Display vsock sockets (alias for -f vsock).


Display XDP sockets (alias for -f xdp).

-f FAMILY, --family=FAMILY

Display sockets of type FAMILY.  Currently the following families are supported: unix, inet, inet6, link, netlink, vsock, xdp.

-A QUERY, --query=QUERY, --socket=QUERY

List of socket tables to dump, separated by commas. The following identifiers are understood: all, inet, tcp, udp, raw, unix, packet, netlink, unix_dgram, unix_stream, unix_seqpacket, packet_raw, packet_dgram, dccp, sctp, vsock_stream, vsock_dgram, xdp Any item in the list may optionally be prefixed by an exclamation mark (!) to exclude that socket table from being dumped.

-D FILE, --diag=FILE

Do not display anything, just dump raw information about TCP sockets to FILE after applying filters. If FILE is - stdout is used.

-F FILE, --filter=FILE

Read filter information from FILE.  Each line of FILE is interpreted like single command line option. If FILE is - stdin is used.


Please take a look at the official documentation for details regarding filters.


STATE-FILTER allows to construct arbitrary set of states to match. Its syntax is sequence of keywords state and exclude followed by identifier of state.

Available identifiers are:

All standard TCP states: established, syn-sent, syn-recv, fin-wait-1, fin-wait-2, time-wait, closed, close-wait, last-ack, listening and closing.

all - for all the states

connected - all the states except for listening and closed

synchronized - all the connected states except for syn-sent

bucket - states, which are maintained as minisockets, i.e. time-wait and syn-recv

big - opposite to bucket

Usage Examples

ss -t -a

Display all TCP sockets.

ss -t -a -Z

Display all TCP sockets with process SELinux security contexts.

ss -u -a

Display all UDP sockets.

ss -o state established '( dport = :ssh or sport = :ssh )'

Display all established ssh connections.

ss -x src /tmp/.X11-unix/*

Find all local processes connected to X server.

ss -o state fin-wait-1 '( sport = :http or sport = :https )' dst 193.233.7/24

List all the tcp sockets in state FIN-WAIT-1 for our apache to network 193.233.7/24 and look at their timers.

ss -a -A 'all,!tcp'

List sockets in all states from all socket tables but TCP.

See Also

RFC 793 - (TCP states)


ss was written by Alexey Kuznetsov, <>.

This manual page was written by Michael Prokop <> for the Debian project (but may be used by others).

Referenced By

netstat(8), ping(8).