cat — concatenate files and print on the standard output

Examples (TL;DR)


cat [OPTION]... [FILE]...


Concatenate FILE(s) to standard output.

With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

-A, --show-all

equivalent to -vET

-b, --number-nonblank

number nonempty output lines, overrides -n


equivalent to -vE

-E, --show-ends

display $ at end of each line

-n, --number

number all output lines

-s, --squeeze-blank

suppress repeated empty output lines


equivalent to -vT

-T, --show-tabs

display TAB characters as ^I



-v, --show-nonprinting

use ^ and M- notation, except for LFD and TAB


display this help and exit


output version information and exit


cat f - g

Output f's contents, then standard input, then g's contents.


Copy standard input to standard output.


Written by Torbjorn Granlund and Richard M. Stallman.

Reporting Bugs

GNU coreutils online help: <>
Report any translation bugs to <>

See Also


Full documentation <>
or available locally via: info '(coreutils) cat invocation'

Referenced By

bidiv(1), catdoc(1), catppt(1), console(1), cpuset(7), devio(1), fetchlog(1), foomatic-rip(1), gio(1), groffer(1), iftab(5), kcc(1), ksh93(1), lz4(1), memcat(1), mksh(1), oggz-merge(1), parcat(1), perltie(1), petcat(1), pipebench(1), pmlogrewrite(1), proc(5), pv(1), sipcalc(1), srec_examples(1), systemd-socket-activate(1), text-vimcolor(1), ul(1), xls2csv(1), xmessage(1), xz(1).

October 2019 GNU coreutils 8.31